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Diagnosis and Treatment of Testicular Cancer

Evaluation and diagnostic testing

If a mass is found, the evaluation can include a scrotal ultrasound, abdominal CT scan, chest x-ray and blood tests. These, along with an examination by a doctor, are used to determine the sequence and timing of treatment. However, the diagnosis is confirmed when tissue is obtained during surgery and examined by our pathology team.


Treatment options include:


  • Orchiectomy (surgical removal the affected testicle)
    a small incision in the low abdomen on the side of the testicle is used. Mild discomfort and swelling from this procedure is generally of short duration and easily managed.
  • Robotic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection
    used in select high risk cases when lymph nodes along the major abdominal blood vessels (aorta and vena cava) must be removed to assess the spread of cancer.
  • Open retroperitoneal lymph node dissection
    used in patients with more advanced disease, often after receiving chemotherapy to treat spread of testicular cancer to the lymph nodes along the major abdominal blood vessels (aorta and vena cava). This involves making a midline abdominal incision. Patients can expect to be recovering in the hospital several days (five days on average) after this procedure.

Additional treatments

  • Chemotherapy
    used in advanced cases after making the diagnosis with curative intent.
  • Radiation therapy
    can be used as a preventive measure or with curative intent for men diagnosed with seminoma, a specific type of testicular cancer. It should be noted that radiation is never used to treat the testicle itself.

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